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April - June 2024

Advaita and Moksha Marga in Srimad Bhagavatham – 11

Skandha 11 (contd.)

न रोधयति मां योगो न साङ्ख्यं धर्म एव च ।
न स्वाध्यायस्तपस्त्यागो नेष्टापूर्तं न दक्षिणा ॥ १२.१॥
व्रतानि यज्ञश्छान्दांसि तीर्थानि नियमा यमाः ।
यथावरुन्धे सत्सङ्गः सर्वसङ्गापहो हि माम् || १२.२॥

 Yoga, Sankhya, Dharma, study of Vedas, austerity, sacrifices, Ishta Dharma (conducting Vedic rituals for public good), Purta Dharma (conducting mundane activities for public good), Dakshina (charity diring religious rites, religious vows, Yagnas, Vedic recitation, pilgrimage, control of inner organs of perception and control of external sense organs do not help in attaining Me as much as the company of the virtuous, which indeed destroys all attachments. (12,1 and 12.2)

मामेकमेव शरणमा मानं सव देिहनाम्

यािह सवा मभावेन मया या  कु तोभयः ॥१२. १५॥

You take refuge in me alone, reckoning that I am the Atma of all living beings. You come to me with that perception; by being in my shelter, you will become free from fear in all ways. (12.15)

यस्मिन्निदं प्रोतमशेषमोतं पटो यथा तन्तुवितानसंस्थः ।
य एष संसारतरुः पुराणः कर्मात्मकः पुष्पफले प्रसूते ॥१२.२१॥

Just as cloth is composed of threads sewn lengthwise and crosswise, the universe is composed of Paramatma only. Just as cloth cannot exist without the threads, but threads can exist without cloth, so also the universe cannot exist without Parmatma, but Paramatma can exist without the universe. This tree of Samsara is ancient, without beginning; it is made of the sequence of Karmas, and its fruit and flower are Moksha and pleasures of this world. (12.21)

न पारमेष्ठ्यं न महेन्द्रधिष्ण्यं न सार्वभौमं न रसाधिपत्यम् ।
न योगसिद्धीरपुनर्भवं वा मय्यर्पितात्मेच्छति मद्विनान्यत् ॥१४.१४॥

One, who has surrendered himself completely to me, does not entertain any wish other than myself, be it the state of Brahma, Devendra, emperor on earth, emperor in Rasatala, or the coveted Siddhis of Yoga, or even Moksha, the state of non-return to Samsara. (14.14)

निरपेक्षं मुनिं शान्तं निर्वैरं समदर्शनम् ।
अनुव्रजाम्यहं नित्यं पूयेयेत्यङ्घ्रिरेणुभिः ॥१४.१६॥

With the intention of purifying myself with the dust particles of his feet, I always run after that Muni, who has no expectations from any quarter, who has quietened his mind by directing it always to me, who has no enmity with any being, and who has equanimity in all his dealings with beings. (14.16)

अन्तरायान् वदन्त्येता युञ्जतो योगमुत्तमम् ।
मया सम्पद्यमानस्य कालक्षपणहेतवः ॥१५.३३॥

Great persons say that these Siddhis are indeed obstacles for one, who practises the supremeYoga and wishes to attain union with Me, as they result in waste of time. (15.33)

तेजः श्रीः कीर्तिरैश्वर्यं ह्रीस्त्यागः सौभगं भगः ।
वीर्यं तितिक्षा विज्ञानं यत्र यत्र स मेंऽशकः ॥१६.४०॥

Where you find brilliance, glory, fame, wealth, modesty, sacrifice, beauty, good fortune, courage, forbearance and Supreme Knowledge, they are all My part (Vibhutis). (16.40)

ब्राह्मणस्य हि देहोऽयं क्षुद्रकामाय नेष्यते ।
कृच्छ्राय तपसे चेह प्रेत्यानन्तसुखाय च ॥१७.४२॥

This body of brahmana is indeed not meant for fulfilling inferior desires. It is meant for experiencing misery and austerity and, for attaining at the end, Moksha, the state of Supreme Bliss. (17.42)

भिक्षोर्धर्मः शमोऽहिंसा तप ईक्षा वनौकसः ।
गृहिणो भूतरक्षेज्या द्विजस्याचार्यसेवनम् ॥१८.४२॥

The main dharma of Sanyasi is internal peace and non-violence; for Vanaprastha, it is austerity and meditating on Bhagavan; for Grihastha, it is protecting all beings and performing Yagas; for Brahmachari, it is serving his Acharya. (18.42)

श्रुतिः प्रत्यक्षमैतिह्यमनुमानं चतुष्टयम् ।
प्रमाणेष्वनवस्थानाद्विकल्पात्स विरज्यते ॥१९.१७॥

Based on the four accepted types of evidence, viz. Vedic authority, that which is seen with one’s own eyes, traditional accounts treated with respect by the virtuous, and inference; the universe which is experienced is found to be transient and subject to change; hence the discriminating aspirant keeps away from it. (19.17)

धर्मो मद्भक्तिकृत्प्रोक्तो ज्ञानं चैकात्म्यदर्शनम् ।
गुणेष्वसङ्गो वैराग्यमैश्वर्यं चाणिमादयः ॥१९.२७॥

Dharma is that which generates devotion in me; Jnana is that which reveals the unity of Brahman and Jivatma; dispassion is non-attachment to mundane objects; Siddhis like Anima etc. are wealth. (19.27)

नृदेहमाद्यं सुलभं सुदुर्लभं प्लवं सुकल्पं गुरुकर्णधारम् ।
मयानुकूलेन नभस्वतेरितं पुमान् भवाब्धिं न तरेत्स आत्महा ॥२०.१७॥

Though difficult of attainment, this human body, once attained, is the root of all auspicious fruits; it is a boat to cross the ocean of Samsara; Guru is the boatman, and I generate propitious winds. If, with such facilities available, a man does not cross the ocean of Samsara, he is the destroyer of his own Atma. (20.17)

भिद्यते हृदयग्रन्थिश्छिद्यन्ते सर्वसंशयाः ।
क्षीयन्ते चास्य कर्माणि मयि दृष्टेऽखिलात्मनि ॥२०.३०॥

Once the aspirant directly experiences Me as the Atma of the entire universe, his knot of heart gets broken; all his doubts are removed; all his karmas are destroyed. (20.30)

This verse is a restatement of the celebrated mantra in Mundakopanishad, mantra 2.2.8.

स्तेयं हिंसानृतं दम्भः कामः क्रोधः स्मयो मदः ।
भेदो वैरमविश्वासः संस्पर्धा व्यसनानि च ॥२३.१८॥
एते पञ्चदशानर्था ह्यर्थमूला मता नृणाम् ।
तस्मादनर्थमर्थाख्यं श्रेयोऽर्थी दूरतस्त्यजेत् ॥२३.१९॥

These fifteen vices of men – thieving, violence, untruth, hypocrisy, desire, anger, conceit, ego, dissent, enmity, mistrust, competition, addiction (to women, gambling and drinking) – are said to be rooted in wealth. Hence the aspirant of supreme good shall abandon from a distance the misfortune called wealth. (23.18, 19)

सुखदुःखप्रदो नान्यः पुरुषस्यात्मविभ्रमः ।
मित्रोदासीनरिपवः संसारस्तमसः कृतः ॥२३.६०॥

There is none else who gives pleasure and pain; it is only the delusion of one’s own mind. The world, the friend, the indifferent person and the enemy are all the handiwork of ignorance. (23.60)

सत्त्वे प्रलीनाः स्वर्यान्ति नरलोकं रजोलयाः ।
तमोलयास्तु निरयं यान्ति मामेव निर्गुणाः ॥२५.२२॥

Those, who leave this world when they are in Satvaguna (tranquillity), attain to Swargaloka; those in Rajoguna (passion) go to the earth; those in Tamoguna (lethargy) reach Naraka; those, who are free from attributes, attain Me alone. (25.22)

द्रव्यं देशः फलं कालो ज्ञानं कर्म च कारकः ।
श्रद्धावस्थाकृतिर्निष्ठा त्रैगुण्यः सर्व एव हि ॥२५.३०॥

Materials, place, fruit, time, Jnana, Karma, doer, faith, state, form, engagement – all of these are of the the three attibutes (Satva, Rajas and Tamas) only. (25.30)

निःसङ्गो मां भजेद्विद्वानप्रमत्तो जितेन्द्रियः ।
रजस्तमश्चाभिजयेत्सत्त्वसंसेवया मुनिः ॥२५.३४॥

A wise and meditative person should overcome Rajoguna and Tamoguna by constant adherence to Satvaguna, without any attachment whatsoever and worship Me intently and having conquered sense organs. (25.34)

इति सर्वाणि भूतानि मद्भावेन महाद्युते ।
सभाजयन् मन्यमानो ज्ञानं केवलमाश्रितः ॥२९.१३॥
ब्राह्मणे पुल्कसे स्तेने ब्रह्मण्येऽर्के स्फुलिङ्गके ।
अक्रूरे क्रूरके चैव समदृक् पण्डितो मतः ॥२९.१४॥

The aspirant, who resorts to the perception of Jnana alone, and looks at all beings with the perception of Me alone and respects them as My own forms, and looks with equanimity at brahmana and chandala, thief and devotee of brahmana, Surya and spark of fire, compassionate and cruel persons, is regarded as Jnani. (29.13, 14)

  (To be continued)